3.2. Polecenie (Command)

3.2.1. Przeznaczenie

Pozwala wydzielić wykonanie określonej czynności w postaci obiektu.

Wprowadzamy trzy obiekty: Nadawcę (ang. Invoker), Odbiorcę (ang. Receiver) i Polecenie (ang. Command). Używamy obiektu Polecenia do wykonywania działań na odbiorcy. Dodatkowo wprowadzamy w obiekcie Polecenia metodę execute(). Dzięki temu Nadawca wywołuje zawsze tą samą metodę niezależnie od Polecenia, aby przetworzyć żądanie klienta. Nadawca i Odbiorca nie są ze sobą połączeni.

Drugi aspektem tego wzorca jest metoda undo(), która pozwala cofnąć wywołanie metody execute(). Polecenie może agregować inne Polecenia, aby wykonywać bardziej złożone operacje. Dzięki temu minimalizujemy kopiowanie kodu z innych klas i opieramy się bardziej na kompozycji niż dziedziczeniu.

3.2.2. Przykłady

  • A text editor : all events are commands which can be undone, stacked and saved.
  • Rozbudowane narzędzia CLI używają Podpoleceń do rozdzielenia różnych zadań i pozwalają na łączenie ich w moduły. Każdy taki moduł może zostać zaimplementowany przy pomocy wzorca Polecenie (np. Vagrant).

3.2.3. Diagram UML

Alt Command UML Diagram

3.2.4. Kod

Ten kod znajdziesz również na GitHub.

Command.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

interface Command
{
    /**
     * this is the most important method in the Command pattern,
     * The Receiver goes in the constructor.
     */
    public function execute();
}

UndoableCommand.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

interface UndoableCommand extends Command
{
    /**
     * This method is used to undo change made by command execution
     */
    public function undo();
}

HelloCommand.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

/**
 * This concrete command calls "print" on the Receiver, but an external
 * invoker just knows that it can call "execute"
 */
class HelloCommand implements Command
{
    /**
     * Each concrete command is built with different receivers.
     * There can be one, many or completely no receivers, but there can be other commands in the parameters
     */
    public function __construct(private Receiver $output)
    {
    }

    /**
     * execute and output "Hello World".
     */
    public function execute()
    {
        // sometimes, there is no receiver and this is the command which does all the work
        $this->output->write('Hello World');
    }
}

AddMessageDateCommand.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

/**
 * This concrete command tweaks receiver to add current date to messages
 * invoker just knows that it can call "execute"
 */
class AddMessageDateCommand implements UndoableCommand
{
    /**
     * Each concrete command is built with different receivers.
     * There can be one, many or completely no receivers, but there can be other commands in the parameters.
     */
    public function __construct(private Receiver $output)
    {
    }

    /**
     * Execute and make receiver to enable displaying messages date.
     */
    public function execute()
    {
        // sometimes, there is no receiver and this is the command which
        // does all the work
        $this->output->enableDate();
    }

    /**
     * Undo the command and make receiver to disable displaying messages date.
     */
    public function undo()
    {
        // sometimes, there is no receiver and this is the command which
        // does all the work
        $this->output->disableDate();
    }
}

Receiver.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

/**
 * Receiver is a specific service with its own contract and can be only concrete.
 */
class Receiver
{
    private bool $enableDate = false;

    /**
     * @var string[]
     */
    private array $output = [];

    public function write(string $str)
    {
        if ($this->enableDate) {
            $str .= ' [' . date('Y-m-d') . ']';
        }

        $this->output[] = $str;
    }

    public function getOutput(): string
    {
        return join("\n", $this->output);
    }

    /**
     * Enable receiver to display message date
     */
    public function enableDate()
    {
        $this->enableDate = true;
    }

    /**
     * Disable receiver to display message date
     */
    public function disableDate()
    {
        $this->enableDate = false;
    }
}

Invoker.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

/**
 * Invoker is using the command given to it.
 * Example : an Application in SF2.
 */
class Invoker
{
    private Command $command;

    /**
     * in the invoker we find this kind of method for subscribing the command
     * There can be also a stack, a list, a fixed set ...
     */
    public function setCommand(Command $cmd)
    {
        $this->command = $cmd;
    }

    /**
     * executes the command; the invoker is the same whatever is the command
     */
    public function run()
    {
        $this->command->execute();
    }
}

3.2.5. Testy

Tests/CommandTest.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Tests;

use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\HelloCommand;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Invoker;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Receiver;
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase;

class CommandTest extends TestCase
{
    public function testInvocation()
    {
        $invoker = new Invoker();
        $receiver = new Receiver();

        $invoker->setCommand(new HelloCommand($receiver));
        $invoker->run();
        $this->assertSame('Hello World', $receiver->getOutput());
    }
}

Tests/UndoableCommandTest.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Tests;

use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\AddMessageDateCommand;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\HelloCommand;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Invoker;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Receiver;
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase;

class UndoableCommandTest extends TestCase
{
    public function testInvocation()
    {
        $invoker = new Invoker();
        $receiver = new Receiver();

        $invoker->setCommand(new HelloCommand($receiver));
        $invoker->run();
        $this->assertSame('Hello World', $receiver->getOutput());

        $messageDateCommand = new AddMessageDateCommand($receiver);
        $messageDateCommand->execute();

        $invoker->run();
        $this->assertSame("Hello World\nHello World [" . date('Y-m-d') . ']', $receiver->getOutput());

        $messageDateCommand->undo();

        $invoker->run();
        $this->assertSame("Hello World\nHello World [" . date('Y-m-d') . "]\nHello World", $receiver->getOutput());
    }
}