3.2. Command

3.2.1. Propósito

Encapsular la invocación y desacoplar.

Tenemos un Invocador y un Receptor. Este patrón usa un «Command» para delegar la llamada al método en el Receptor y presenta el mismo método «execute». Por tanto, el Invocador simplemente debe saber llamar a «execute»para procesar el Command del cliente. El Receptor se desacopla del Invocador.

El segundo aspecto de este patrón es el undo(), que deshace el métodoexecute(). El comando también se puede añadir para realizar combinaciones más complejas de comandos con un mínimo de copia-pega y depender de la composición antes que de la herencia.

3.2.2. Ejemplos

  • A text editor : all events are commands which can be undone, stacked and saved.
  • Las grandes herramientas CLI utilizan subcomandos para distribuir varias tareas y empaquetarlas en » módulos «, cada uno de estos se puede implementar con el patrón Command (por ejemplo, vagrant)

3.2.3. Diagrama UML

Alt Command UML Diagram

3.2.4. Código

Puedes encontrar el código en GitHub

Command.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

interface Command
{
    /**
     * this is the most important method in the Command pattern,
     * The Receiver goes in the constructor.
     */
    public function execute();
}

UndoableCommand.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

interface UndoableCommand extends Command
{
    /**
     * This method is used to undo change made by command execution
     */
    public function undo();
}

HelloCommand.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

/**
 * This concrete command calls "print" on the Receiver, but an external
 * invoker just knows that it can call "execute"
 */
class HelloCommand implements Command
{
    /**
     * Each concrete command is built with different receivers.
     * There can be one, many or completely no receivers, but there can be other commands in the parameters
     */
    public function __construct(private Receiver $output)
    {
    }

    /**
     * execute and output "Hello World".
     */
    public function execute()
    {
        // sometimes, there is no receiver and this is the command which does all the work
        $this->output->write('Hello World');
    }
}

AddMessageDateCommand.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

/**
 * This concrete command tweaks receiver to add current date to messages
 * invoker just knows that it can call "execute"
 */
class AddMessageDateCommand implements UndoableCommand
{
    /**
     * Each concrete command is built with different receivers.
     * There can be one, many or completely no receivers, but there can be other commands in the parameters.
     */
    public function __construct(private Receiver $output)
    {
    }

    /**
     * Execute and make receiver to enable displaying messages date.
     */
    public function execute()
    {
        // sometimes, there is no receiver and this is the command which
        // does all the work
        $this->output->enableDate();
    }

    /**
     * Undo the command and make receiver to disable displaying messages date.
     */
    public function undo()
    {
        // sometimes, there is no receiver and this is the command which
        // does all the work
        $this->output->disableDate();
    }
}

Receiver.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

/**
 * Receiver is a specific service with its own contract and can be only concrete.
 */
class Receiver
{
    private bool $enableDate = false;

    /**
     * @var string[]
     */
    private array $output = [];

    public function write(string $str)
    {
        if ($this->enableDate) {
            $str .= ' [' . date('Y-m-d') . ']';
        }

        $this->output[] = $str;
    }

    public function getOutput(): string
    {
        return join("\n", $this->output);
    }

    /**
     * Enable receiver to display message date
     */
    public function enableDate()
    {
        $this->enableDate = true;
    }

    /**
     * Disable receiver to display message date
     */
    public function disableDate()
    {
        $this->enableDate = false;
    }
}

Invoker.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command;

/**
 * Invoker is using the command given to it.
 * Example : an Application in SF2.
 */
class Invoker
{
    private Command $command;

    /**
     * in the invoker we find this kind of method for subscribing the command
     * There can be also a stack, a list, a fixed set ...
     */
    public function setCommand(Command $cmd)
    {
        $this->command = $cmd;
    }

    /**
     * executes the command; the invoker is the same whatever is the command
     */
    public function run()
    {
        $this->command->execute();
    }
}

3.2.5. Test

Tests/CommandTest.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Tests;

use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\HelloCommand;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Invoker;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Receiver;
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase;

class CommandTest extends TestCase
{
    public function testInvocation()
    {
        $invoker = new Invoker();
        $receiver = new Receiver();

        $invoker->setCommand(new HelloCommand($receiver));
        $invoker->run();
        $this->assertSame('Hello World', $receiver->getOutput());
    }
}

Tests/UndoableCommandTest.php

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<?php

declare(strict_types=1);

namespace DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Tests;

use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\AddMessageDateCommand;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\HelloCommand;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Invoker;
use DesignPatterns\Behavioral\Command\Receiver;
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase;

class UndoableCommandTest extends TestCase
{
    public function testInvocation()
    {
        $invoker = new Invoker();
        $receiver = new Receiver();

        $invoker->setCommand(new HelloCommand($receiver));
        $invoker->run();
        $this->assertSame('Hello World', $receiver->getOutput());

        $messageDateCommand = new AddMessageDateCommand($receiver);
        $messageDateCommand->execute();

        $invoker->run();
        $this->assertSame("Hello World\nHello World [" . date('Y-m-d') . ']', $receiver->getOutput());

        $messageDateCommand->undo();

        $invoker->run();
        $this->assertSame("Hello World\nHello World [" . date('Y-m-d') . "]\nHello World", $receiver->getOutput());
    }
}