2.6. Dependency Injection

2.6.1. Purpose

To implement a loosely coupled architecture in order to get better testable, maintainable and extendable code.

2.6.2. Usage

DatabaseConfiguration gets injected and DatabaseConnection will get all that it needs from $config. Without DI, the configuration would be created directly in DatabaseConnection, which is not very good for testing and extending it.

2.6.3. Examples

  • The Doctrine2 ORM uses dependency injection e.g. for configuration that is injected into a Connection object. For testing purposes, one can easily create a mock object of the configuration and inject that into the Connection object
  • Symfony and Zend Framework 2 already have containers for DI that create objects via a configuration array and inject them where needed (i.e. in Controllers)

2.6.4. UML Diagram

Alt DependencyInjection UML Diagram

2.6.5. Code

You can also find these code on GitHub

DatabaseConfiguration.php

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<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Structural\DependencyInjection;

class DatabaseConfiguration
{
    /**
     * @var string
     */
    private $host;

    /**
     * @var int
     */
    private $port;

    /**
     * @var string
     */
    private $username;

    /**
     * @var string
     */
    private $password;

    public function __construct(string $host, int $port, string $username, string $password)
    {
        $this->host = $host;
        $this->port = $port;
        $this->username = $username;
        $this->password = $password;
    }

    public function getHost(): string
    {
        return $this->host;
    }

    public function getPort(): int
    {
        return $this->port;
    }

    public function getUsername(): string
    {
        return $this->username;
    }

    public function getPassword(): string
    {
        return $this->password;
    }
}

DatabaseConnection.php

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<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Structural\DependencyInjection;

class DatabaseConnection
{
    /**
     * @var DatabaseConfiguration
     */
    private $configuration;

    /**
     * @param DatabaseConfiguration $config
     */
    public function __construct(DatabaseConfiguration $config)
    {
        $this->configuration = $config;
    }

    public function getDsn(): string
    {
        // this is just for the sake of demonstration, not a real DSN
        // notice that only the injected config is used here, so there is
        // a real separation of concerns here

        return sprintf(
            '%s:%s@%s:%d',
            $this->configuration->getUsername(),
            $this->configuration->getPassword(),
            $this->configuration->getHost(),
            $this->configuration->getPort()
        );
    }
}

2.6.6. Test

Tests/DependencyInjectionTest.php

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<?php

namespace DesignPatterns\Structural\DependencyInjection\Tests;

use DesignPatterns\Structural\DependencyInjection\DatabaseConfiguration;
use DesignPatterns\Structural\DependencyInjection\DatabaseConnection;
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase;

class DependencyInjectionTest extends TestCase
{
    public function testDependencyInjection()
    {
        $config = new DatabaseConfiguration('localhost', 3306, 'domnikl', '1234');
        $connection = new DatabaseConnection($config);

        $this->assertEquals('domnikl:1234@localhost:3306', $connection->getDsn());
    }
}